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whey cheese disposal

The cheese industry is a powerhouse for satisfying taste buds and contributing significantly to the global economy. However, it also produces an enormous amount of whey. In fact, around 80-90% of the milk used to make cheese will become whey. To put it into a different perspective, for every pound of cheese produced, approximately nine pounds of whey are left behind. 

While it’s true that whey from cheese is often viewed as waste and has been cited as one of the most polluting by-products of the food industry, it’s time to reconsider. Cheese whey holds a wealth of untapped potential, from additional revenue streams to innovative uses. Intrigued? Let’s explore the multifaceted uses, recovery methods, and disposal options for whey. 

Key Takeaways 

  • Cheese whey, often viewed as waste, is actually rich in nutrients and has a range of uses, including animal feed and biofuels. 
  • Different types of cheese whey have distinct characteristics that make them suitable for specific applications. 
  • Innovative techniques like anaerobic digestion for biogas and conversion to bioplastics are making the management of cheese whey more sustainable. 
  • Mismanaging cheese whey can lead to severe environmental and economic repercussions, including water pollution and legal fines. 
  • Compliance with laws and regulation are crucial for both environmental sustainability and brand reputation. 

What is cheese whey?

Cheese whey is the liquid that separates from the curds during the cheese-making process. It’s what’s left in the vat after the cheese has been formed and removed. Often considered a waste material, this liquid gold actually holds a wealth of nutrients, including proteins, lactose, vitamins, and minerals. While it’s easy to dismiss whey as mere waste, savvy industry players recognize its potential for a variety of applications. From animal feed and fertilizers to protein supplements and even biofuels, properly managed whey can transition from being an environmental concern to a valuable resource with multiple second-life applications.

Cheese whey characteristics

Whey is a complex by-product with a variety of characteristics that make it incredibly versatile, but to understand how to maximize its full potential, we need to understand its key traits.


Cheese whey is predominantly water, constituting 93.12% of its makeup. The residual 6.88% is a concentrated mix of essential nutrients and bioactive compounds, including 0.9% essential amino acids such as leucine, isoleucine, and valine. Fats also make up around 0.9%, encompassing a range of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids. Lactose, another key component, accounts for about 4.8% and serves as a potential energy source. The composition is rounded out by essential minerals like calcium, phosphorus, and magnesium, as well as vitamins like B12 and riboflavin.


Acid whey

Derived primarily from the production of acid-based cheeses like cottage cheese and ricotta, acid whey has a lower pH and is rich in proteins like lactalbumin. Its acidic nature makes it less versatile for direct consumption but highly useful in the production of animal feed and certain types of fermented foods.

Sweet whey

Sweet whey is a byproduct of rennet-based cheeses such as cheddar and Swiss. It has a higher pH and is rich in beta-lactoglobulin protein. It is commonly used in the food industry, particularly in the production of whey protein concentrates and isolates.

Demineralized Whey

When you remove a portion of the mineral content from whey, you get demineralized whey. This type is often used in specialized products like infant formulas and certain confectioneries. This is because the demineralization process makes it easier to work with in formulations that require a specific mineral balance.

Hydrolyzed Whey

This whey undergoes enzymatic treatment to break down its proteins into smaller peptides, making it easier to digest, and so it is often used in medical protein supplements, specialized infant formulas, and other nutrition products.

creative ways to use leftover whey

What to do with whey from cheese

Managing cheese whey is a critical aspect of sustainable dairy operations. Various innovative methods have been developed to turn this byproduct into valuable resources. Here are some of the most effective techniques:


Landfilling has been the traditional route for whey disposal. While straightforward, it’s far from ideal. The environmental toll is significant, as the decomposition of organic matter like whey releases methane, a potent greenhouse gas. However, it’s still a method used, particularly where other options are not feasible or too costly.

Anaerobic digestion

Anaerobic digestion offers a more sustainable alternative. In this process, microorganisms break down organic matter in the absence of oxygen. The result? Biogas, a renewable energy source consisting mainly of methane and carbon dioxide. This gas can be used for heating, electricity generation, or even as vehicle fuel. Anaerobic digestion not only mitigates the environmental impact but also provides an additional revenue stream for dairy producers. 

Animal feed

Whey is rich in protein and lactose, making it a valuable addition to animal feed. By supplementing livestock diets with whey, farmers can improve animal health, and at the same time, reduce the need for other, often more expensive, feed ingredients. This method is cost-effective and beneficial for both the dairy industry and agriculture. 


Another innovative approach is converting whey into bioplastic. Scientists are experimenting with fermenting the lactose in whey to produce lactic acid, a key component in certain bioplastics. This offers an eco-friendly alternative to traditional plastics and opens up new avenues for whey utilization.

Protein isolation for nutritional supplements

Whey is rich in protein, and isolating these proteins creates valuable nutritional supplements. These supplements are especially popular among athletes and fitness enthusiasts, as they provide a quick and convenient source of high-quality protein.

Direct land application as fertilizer

Some farmers use untreated whey as a soil conditioner. The organic matter and nutrients in whey can improve soil quality. However, this method requires careful management to prevent soil degradation and water pollution.

Whey processing methods

Ultrafiltration for protein concentration

Ultrafiltration is a membrane-based process that concentrates the protein content in whey. This method is particularly useful for creating protein-rich supplements and food additives. The concentrated protein can be dried and used in various products, such as sports nutrition or baked goods.

Reverse osmosis for lactose recovery

Reverse osmosis is another membrane technology, but its primary focus is on lactose recovery. By removing water and other small molecules, it concentrates the lactose, which can then be crystallized and used in the food industry or for the production of ethanol.

Spray drying for powdered whey

This method transforms liquid whey into a powder. This powdered form is easier to store and transport, and it’s often used in the food industry as an additive for its nutritional value and functional properties.

Fermentation for value-added products

Through microbial action, whey can be converted into various value-added products like ethanol, organic acids, and even flavor compounds.

Coagulation for wastewater treatment

By adding coagulating agents, the suspended solids in whey settle, making it easier to separate the water. This treated water can then be reused in industrial processes, contributing to water conservation.

Chemical precipitation for mineral recovery

Chemical precipitation is used to recover minerals like calcium and phosphorus from whey, whereby they can then be used in various applications, including animal feed and fertilizers.

Incineration for energy recovery

Though less common, incineration is another method to manage whey. The process involves burning the organic matter in whey to produce heat, which can be converted into energy. However, this method is generally considered less sustainable compared to others, like biogas production.

Enzymatic bioprocessing

Enzymatic bioprocessing uses specific enzymes to alter whey components like proteins and lactose. This method is highly precise, allowing for the creation of specialized products such as functional foods and pharmaceuticals. It’s particularly useful for generating bioactive peptides and prebiotics.

graphical abstract of whey cheese fermentation process

Whey disposal problems

While it has valuable components that can be repurposed, improper management can lead to significant environmental and economic consequences.

The environmental impact of whey waste

  • Cheese whey is rich in organic matter and nutrients. While this is generally a positive thing, it becomes problematic when it is released into rivers or lakes as it can trigger a harmful process known as eutrophication. This leads to algal blooms that suck the oxygen out of the water, endangering fish and other aquatic species.
  • Another concern is the strain that whey places on wastewater treatment facilities due to its high biochemical oxygen demand (BOD). When these facilities are overwhelmed, it can result in the release of inadequately treated water, causing further pollution.
  • Adding to the environmental concerns, disposing of whey in landfills contributes to methane production. Methane is a significant greenhouse gas, and its release into the atmosphere worsens climate change.

How it impacts the economy

  • For dairy producers, the financial implications of whey mismanagement can be severe. Legal repercussions and fines can quickly add up, affecting profitability.
  • The treatment of whey is another cost factor. Traditional methods are often energy-intensive and involve multiple stages, leading to increased operational costs.
  • There’s also the lost opportunity for revenue. Whey has the potential to be converted into valuable products like biogas and bioplastics. Failing to utilize this resource means missing out on additional income streams that could otherwise benefit the industry.

Regulations of cheese whey disposal

In the United States, the management and disposal of whey waste are governed by a set of laws and regulations aimed at minimizing environmental impact and promoting sustainable practices. These legal frameworks ensure that both producers and consumers are held to certain standards.

Clean Water Act (CWA) 

This federal law regulates the discharge of pollutants into U.S. waters and sets quality standards for surface waters, including limitations on cheese whey disposal to prevent water pollution. 

National Pollutant Discharge Elimination System (NPDES) 

Under the Clean Water Act, this program requires facilities to obtain permits for discharging pollutants, including whey, into navigable waters. 

Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) 

This act focuses on the proper management of hazardous and non-hazardous solid waste, which includes certain types of processed whey. 

Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) 

This governs the safety of food and food additives, including the use of whey in food products and their labeling. 

Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) 

Commonly known as the Superfund, this law can come into play if whey disposal leads to environmental contamination that requires long-term cleanup. 

State-Specific Regulations 

In addition to federal laws, various states have their own regulations that may impose stricter standards on whey disposal and treatment. 

For businesses in the dairy industry, compliance with these laws and regulations is far from a bureaucratic checkbox. It’s a critical factor that can influence both operational costs and brand reputation. Legal repercussions for non-compliance can be financially crippling, and the negative publicity can have long-lasting effects on consumer trust. 


Cheese whey management is far from a trivial matter, and that’s why we aim to be your go-to partner in this field. Our extensive network stretches across the United States, connecting you with top-tier experts who specialize in both the management and sustainable disposal of dairy waste products

But we go beyond mere compliance with existing regulations. At Shapiro, we’re about setting new industry standards. Our focus is on innovative, sustainable practices that not only mitigate environmental risks but also offer avenues for economic growth. Whether it’s turning whey into biogas or implementing state-of-the-art treatment methods, we’re at the forefront of sustainable solutions. 

Whey from Cheese Reuse And DisposalFAQs

If you still have questions about whey from cheese reuse and disposal, keep on reading. We’ve got all the answers:

Is whey a waste product? 

While whey is a byproduct of cheese production, calling it “waste” would be a misnomer. It has numerous applications, from nutritional supplements to biogas production, making it a valuable resource when managed properly. 

Is whey protein processed food? 

Yes, whey protein is a processed food. It undergoes various treatments, like ultrafiltration, to isolate the protein from the rest of the whey components. However, the term “processed” shouldn’t necessarily imply that it’s unhealthy; whey protein is a high-quality source of protein. 

Why is whey discarded?

Whey is often discarded due to a lack of awareness about its potential uses or because of the costs associated with its proper management and utilization. However, many industries are now recognizing its value and are finding innovative ways to repurpose it.

Can you put whey down the drain?

It’s not advisable to pour whey down the drain, especially in large quantities. Doing so can lead to water pollution and may even be against local wastewater regulations.

Is whey good for the environment?

Whey itself is not inherently harmful to the environment, but its improper disposal can be. When managed responsibly, whey can be converted into sustainable resources like biogas and bioplastics, making it an eco-friendly option.

Is whey good for soil?

Whey can be beneficial for soil as it contains valuable nutrients. However, it should be used cautiously and in moderation to prevent soil degradation or water pollution.

How to dispose of acid whey?

Acid whey should be treated before disposal to neutralize its acidity. It can also be processed to extract valuable components like proteins and lactose. Some sustainable disposal methods include anaerobic digestion for biogas production or using it as animal feed.

Baily Ramsey, an accomplished marketing specialist, brings a unique blend of anthropological insight and marketing finesse to the digital landscape. Specializing in educational content creation, she creates content for various industries, with a particular interest in environmental initiatives.

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